British parliamentДисциплина: Юриспруденция
Тип работы: Курсовая
Тема: British parliament
The Make up of the House of Commons
The Passing of Laws
In the House of Commons
In the House of Lords
Raising Bills in the House of Lords
17.The Comparison Of Two Political Systems: Ukrainian And British Ones.
The State System of any nation is not an artificial creation of some genius or simply the embodiment of different rational schemes. It is nothing else but a work of many
centuries, a product of a national spirit, a political mentality and the consciousness of people.
I have chosen the topic because of its obvious importance. Ukraine is building a sovereign state and it is encounteing a lot of problems. Ukraine is suffering an overall deep
crisis, trying to set herself free from the persistent inheritance of totalitarianism preying upon economic, politic, national self-consciousness. There is no universally efficient
remedy to help the Ukrainian society out of this grave condition. The process of recovery will be long and arduous. Moreover, the country’s eventual deliverance from totalitarian
inheritance and its harmonious entry into civilized world community remain for that matter, hardly practicable at all, unless political culture is humanized, and political education
of such a kind propagated that would help society overcome the backwardness, the pre-modernity of prevailing visions of justice, democracy, law and order, and the relationship of the
individual and the state.
It is quite clear that in the process of democracy formation a lot of problems connected with it will inevitably appear. Many of them already exist. In this solution, a
considered usage of foreign experience can help the Ukrainian community to optimize the processes essential for the transitional period from one political system to another, and not
to allow the social prevailing tensions to develop into a national civil crisis. And it will also help to save time and resources.
Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a monarch as its Head of the State. The monarch reigns with the support of Parliament. The powers of the
monarch are not defined precisely. Everything today is done in the Queen’s name. It is her government, her armed forces, her law courts and so on. She appoints all the Ministers,
including the Prime Minister. Everything is done however on the advice of the elected Government, and the monarch takes no part in the decision-making process.
British way of ruling the
The British Parliament has been in existence since 1215, when King John signed the Magna Carta, and is one of the oldest in the world. The workings of it have changed through
the ages and below is a brief description of the ways in which it works.
Parliament consists of two chambers, the House of Commons, consisting of members of parliament who are elected, and the House of Lords, consisting of unelected peers. The
Sovereign, at the moment Queen Elizabeth II, is the third part of the Parliament. The government is officially known as Her Majesty's Government. The Queen has, in principle, a lot of
power over the government, but chooses not to exercise that power. This position has emerged through the ages, though at one time the Sovereign exercised a lot of power over the
government, and the country.
In principle, the “Crown in Parliament” is supreme. This means that legislation passed by Parliament, which consists of the House of Commons (elected directly by the people) and
the House of Lords (made up of hereditary peers and appointive members—archbishops, senior bishops, law lords, and life peers) becomes law upon royal assent. In practice, legislation is
dominated by the prime minister and the cabinet, who initiate virtually all proposed bills and who are politically responsible for the administration of the law and the affairs of the
nation. Fiscal legislation is always initiated in the House of Commons, and other legislation almost always. Since the Parliament Act of 1911, the House of Lords has been unable to
block fiscal legislation. By the terms of the Parliament Act of 1949, the Lords may not disapprove other bills if they have been passed by two successive annual sessions of the Commons.
The power of the Crown to veto legislation has not been exercised in over 280 years.
The British Constitution
The British Constitution is to a large extent a product of many historical events and has thus evolved aver many centuries. Unlike the constitutions of most other countries, it
is not set out in any single document. Instead it is made up of statute law, common law and conventions. The constitution can be change by Act of Parliament, or by general agreement
to alter a convention.
The Monarchy in Britain.
When the Queen was born on 21 April 1926, her grandfather, King George V, was on the throne and her uncle was his heir. The death of her grandfather and the abdication of her
uncle (King Edward VIII) brought her father to the throne in 1936 as King George VI. Elizabeth II came to the throne an 6 February 1952 and was crowned on 2 June 1953. Since then she
made many trips to different countries and to the UK also. The Queen is very rich, as are others members of the royal family. In addition, the government pays for her expenses as Head
of the State, for a royal yacht, train and aircraft as well as for the upkeep of several palaces. The Queen’s image appears on stamps, notes and coins.